A. FRAM TILL KUPPEN
3. Utrustning och taktik
Militanterna på Maidan var inte bara aggressiva och våldsamma. De hade dessutom organisation, taktik och vapen. Många var finansierade, arbetade på uppdrag.
a) Finansiering och metoder
USA:s biträdande utrikesminister Victoria Nuland har själv uppgivit siffran 5.000 miljoner dollar, som USA investerat i regimskiftet i Kiev. Där innefattas solden till många av militanterna, förmedlade genom olika NGO:s (Non-Governmental Organizations).
”The evidence, obtained within the framework of the project on ’Public investigations of the violations of human rights in Ukraine’, implemented by the NGO ’Fund to research problems of democracy’, makes it possible to clearly identify, among the participants of the Euromaidan, the presence of large and permanent groups of militants, numbering up to several thousand people, who organized the attacks, shootings, beatings and killings of law enforcement officers, dissidents (protesters whose political positions did not coincide with that of the Maidan), seizures of public buildings, etc.”
b) Vapen och utrustning
Till sitt förfogande hade militanterna vapen, skyddsutrustning och kommunikationsutrustning. Kvalitén på utrustningen överträffade till stor del vad kravallpolisen kunde disponera.Till vapnen hörde klubbor, stickvapen, kedjor, brandbomber, gatstenar och cylinderbehållare att spruta gas med. I vissa fall även skjutvapen.
”This group was characterized by a high level of provisions with firearms and cold arms, various special gear (grenades, gas, etc.) and radio communication equipment, personal protective equipment (military and official body armor and helmets, shields, knee and elbow pads, masks, respirators, gas masks, etc.), mastery of specific tactical methods of group actions, shift work in the organization of fresh reserves, organization of small-scale production of improvised explosive devices and training of other activists, etc.
Witnesses also reported the high skills of the protesters, who knew how to use irritant poisonous substances, including gases of unknown origin, as well as smoke from burning tires, and smoke bombs. The respirators and equipment of law enforcement officers did not prove to be of much help against these.”
Participants of Euromaidan could very effectively determine the wind direction, and thus they placed sources of gas and smoke in the most advantageous positions, in order to cause the maximum damage.”
”A number of law enforcement officers were poisoned by gases of unknown origin and required hospital treatment.
”All interviewed witnesses point out the good equipment and training of the militants. It is noted that at the beginning of these events, homemade protective equipment was used – sports and construction equipment, bicycle helmets, arm and shin guards. Witnesses noted the characteristics of the militants’ homemade weapons – sticks, cudgels, axes that were upgraded to increase their striking effect by means of welding iron spikes onto them, using pieces of circular saws, domestic axes with larger helves, etc. Widely used were traumatic weapons, air rifles with optical sights, converted pistols, etc. ’Molotov cocktails’ were produced at a sufficiently high level. Special chemical components were added, which by their properties were almost like napalm.”
I skyddsutrustningen ingick hjälmar och gasmasker, sköldar och kängor.
”After the start of the active phase of operations, the militants obtained regular army or special equipment and personal protective equipment (flak jackets, helmets, hard hats).”
c) Organisation och taktik
Militanterna var den grupp som närvarade konstant på Maidan, jämfört med andra deltagare, som kom och gick. De var organiserade i grupper, med en person i ledningen för varje. Ett moment var att utnyttja de fredliga demonstranterna som en massa att försvinna i, då polisen gick till motangrepp. Från massan av ”fredliga” fick man också ett moraliskt och psykologiskt stöd. De gav vidare praktiskt understöd, genom att tillverka brandbomber, bryta upp gatstenar, bygga barrikader, sätta eld på bildäck och att provocera polisen.
”There were also many peaceful protesters who did not participate in the provocations. Almost all the activists – and this was perfectly developed – right at the moment when the Berkut came forward, immediately dissolved into the crowd.’”
Till taktiken hörde att inte ge polisen någon andrum, utan att genast följa upp en erövrad position med nya angrepp. Man arbetade i skift, var indelade i grupper som avlöste varandra. Aktionerna var väl koordinerade.
”Another Berkut officer testified: ’The desyatniks and sotniks (leaders of groups of militants consisting of 10 and 100 people respectively) are well trained and well- armed. Each of them had a headset, and they directed their troops against us. When they shot at us, our shields were penetrated as if they were shooting with lead bullets on bovine game. A hole, size of a five-kopeck coin was torn from my comrade’s shield. At the forefront, there were the militants, wearing NATO military uniforms, kneepads, elbow pads, and helmets. Their units worked on the front lines (those who threw the ’Molotov cocktails’). It turned out that about one hundred militants worked actively for a couple of hours, and then another unit came. The first unit fell back to rest. They came at us several times in waves, with good equipment and a certain psychological attitude, very aggressive.”
Till sitt förfogande skulle man enligt den ryska vitboken t.o.m. ha haft till och med en form av drönare, obemannade flygplan, som kunde övervaka gatustriderna och förse stridsledningen med information.
”Ivan, an officer of the Berkut Special Police Force, draws attention to the use of the unmanned aerial vehicles that were used to assist the rebels, ’Twice I saw these drones. The Maidan was under full surveillance.”